J. R. Anderson, C. F. Boyle, A. T. Corbett, and M. W. Lewis, Cognitive modeling and intelligent tutoring, Artificial Intelligence, vol.42, issue.1, pp.7-49, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-3702(90)90093-F

N. Aussenac-gilles, How to combine data abstraction and model refinement: a methodological contribution in Velde editors) Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (867) 'A future for Knowledge Acquisition, pp.262-28218, 1994.

N. Aussenac-gilles and N. Matta, Making a method of problem solving explicit with MACAO, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol.40, issue.2, pp.193-219, 1994.
DOI : 10.1006/ijhc.1994.1010

D. Beaubeau, N. Aussenac-gilles, and P. Tchounikine, Mona au pays des rôles: opérationalisation de modèles conceptuels Mona en Zola, IRIT internal report IRIT, pp.96-119, 1996.

J. Breuker, Reusable components for artificial problem solvers: the common Kads library experience, the Proceedings of the IJCAI workshop on knowledge sharing and information exchange, 1993.

R. Budde, K. Kautz, K. Kuhlenkamp, and H. Züllighoven, Prototyping. An approach to evolutionary system development, 1991.

C. Choquet, P. Tchounikine, and F. Trichet, Exploitations pédagogiques d'un modèle de raisonnement : une expérience en milieu industriel (in French). Environnements Intéractifs d'Apprentissage avec Ordinateurs, Eyrolles, vol.2, pp.101-112, 1995.

W. J. Clancey, Knowledge based tutoring. The Guidon program, 1987.

M. J. Elliot, H. T. Bull, C. I. Pulford, N. R. Shadbolt, and W. Smith, Constructive knowledge engineering, Knowledge-Based Systems, vol.8, issue.5, pp.259-267, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0950-7051(95)98903-J

D. Fensel and F. Van-harmelen, A comparison of languages which operationalize and formalize KADS models of expertise, The Knowledge Engineering Review, vol.9, issue.02, pp.105-146, 1994.
DOI : 10.1017/S0269888900006767

J. R. Frederiksen and B. Y. White, The avionics job-family tutor: an approach to developing generic cognitive skills within a job-situated context, the Proceedings of the International conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AI-ED'93, pp.513-520, 1993.

B. R. Gaines, M. L. Shaw, and J. B. Woodward, Modelling as framework for knowledge acquisition methodologies and tools, International Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol.8, pp.155-168, 1993.

S. Geldof and A. Slodzian, From Verification to Modelling Guidelines Velde editors) Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (867) 'A future for Knowledge Acquisition, pp.226-243, 1994.

T. Gruber, A method for acquiring strategic knowledge, Knowledge Acquisition, vol.1, issue.3, pp.255-277, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/S1042-8143(89)80014-7

Z. Istenes and P. Tchounikine, Zola: a language to Operationalise Conceptual Models of Reasoning, Journal of computing and information (special issue ICCI'96, pp.689-706, 1996.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01437235

Z. Istenes, P. Tchounikine, and F. Trichet, Dynamic Selection of Tasks and Methods as a Knowledge Level Reflective activity, editor) Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Artificial Intelligence: Methodology, Systems, Applications (Proceedings of the 7th International Conference AIMSA'96, pp.168-177, 1996.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01437239

I. Jacob-delouis and J. P. Krivine, LISA: un langage réflexif pour opérationaliser les modèles d'expertise (in french) Revue d, Intelligence Artificielle, vol.9, issue.1, pp.53-88, 1995.

&. Karbach, W. Karbach, and A. Voss, Model-K for prototyping and strategic reasoning at the Knowledge LevelSimmons editors) Second Generation Expert Systems, pp.721-745, 1993.

D. E. Kieras, What mental model should be taught : choosing instructional content for complex engineered systemsMutter editors) ITS: lessons learned, pp.85-111, 1988.

O. Laske, On competence and performance notions in expert system design: a critique of rapid prototyping, the Proceedings of Les systèmes experts et leurs applications, journées internationales d'Avignon, pp.257-29719, 1983.

M. Linster, Closing the gap between modelling to make sense and modelling to implement systems, International Journal of Intelligent Systems, vol.8, pp.209-230, 1993.

M. Linster, Integrating conceptual and operational modeling: a case study, Knowledge Acquisition, vol.5, issue.2, pp.143-171, 1993.
DOI : 10.1006/knac.1993.1006

B. Means and S. P. Gott, Cognitive task analysis as a basis for tutor development: articulating abstract knowledge representationsMutter editors) ITS: lessons learned, pp.35-57, 1988.

A. Newell, The knowledge level, Artificial Intelligence, vol.18, issue.1, pp.87-127, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0004-3702(82)90012-1

C. Paris and Y. Gil, EXPECT: Intelligent support for knowledge base refinement, the Proceedings of the European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, pp.220-236, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-57253-8_56

&. Punch, W. F. Punch, and B. Chandrasekaran, An Investigation of the Roles of Problem-Solving Methods in DiagnosisSimmons editors) Second Generation Expert Systems, pp.673-688, 1993.

M. Reinders, E. Vinkhuyzen, A. Voss, H. Akkermans, J. Balder et al., A conceptual modelling framework for knowledge-level Reflection, AI Communications, vol.4, issue.23, pp.74-87, 1991.

K. Sandahl, Transferring knowledge from active expert to end-user environment, Knowledge Acquisition, vol.6, issue.1, pp.1-22, 1994.
DOI : 10.1006/knac.1994.1001

A. Schaafstal and J. M. Schraagen, Training of systematic diagnosis: a case study in electronic troubleshooting, the Proceedings of the International conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp.529-535, 1993.

L. Steels, Components of expertise, AI Magazine, vol.11, issue.2, pp.29-49, 1990.

P. Tchounikine and C. Choquet, Fault diagnosis expert system for robots: a knowledge level prototyping experience, the Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge engineering (SEKE'95, pp.268-274, 1995.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01437249

P. Tchounikine, Elaboration of a model of reasoning by prototyping at the Knowledge Level (in French), Revue Sciences et Techniques Éducatives, vol.1, issue.4, pp.483-501, 1994.

P. Tchounikine, Representing and activating knowledge in educational software for a human instructor-like reasoning-process justification, the Proceedings of the International Conference on Advanced Research on Computers in Education (ARCE'90, pp.129-134, 1990.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01437278

F. Trichet and P. Tchounikine, Des explications pour le concepteur d'un système à base de connaissances (in French), the Proceedings of the French meeting on explanations (Journées Explication'96, pp.214-229, 1996.

A. Valente, J. Breuker, and B. Bredeweg, Integrating modeling approaches in the CommonKADS library, Prospects for Artificial Intelligence (Proceedings of the AISB'93, pp.121-130, 1993.

. Van-harmelen, F. Van-harmelen, B. Wielinga, B. Bredeweg, G. Schreiber et al., Knowledge-Level Reflection, Steel editors) Enhancing the Knowledge Engineering Process, Contributions from ESPRIT, pp.175-204, 1992.

&. Vanwelkenhuysen, J. Vanwelkenhuysen, and P. Rademakers, Mapping a Knowledge Level analysis onto a computational framework, the Proceedings of the European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI'90, pp.661-666, 1990.

E. Wenger, Artificial intelligence and tutoring systems, computational and cognitive approaches of the communication of knowledge, 1987.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00703016

&. Wielinga, B. Wielinga, A. Schreiber, and A. Breuker, KADS: a modelling approach to knowledge engineering, Knowledge Acquisition, vol.4, issue.1, pp.1-162, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/1042-8143(92)90013-Q

&. Winkels, R. Winkels, and J. Breuker, Modelling expertise for educational purposes, the Proceedings of the International Conference on Tutoring Systems (ITS'92), pp.633-641, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-55606-0_73