C. W. Anderson and E. L. Smith, Children's preconceptions and content-area textbooks, Comprehension Instruction: Perspectives and Suggestions, pp.187-201, 1984.

J. Clement, Students??? preconceptions in introductory mechanics, American Journal of Physics, vol.50, issue.1, pp.66-71, 1982.
DOI : 10.1119/1.12989

A. Disessa, Unlearning Aristotelian Physics: A Study of Knowledge-Based Learning*, Cognitive Science, vol.5, issue.1, pp.37-75, 1982.
DOI : 10.1207/s15516709cog0601_2

R. Driver, E. Guesne, and A. Tiberghien, Children's Ideas in Science, 1985.

F. M. Goldberg and L. C. Mcdermott, Student difficulties in understanding image formation by a plane mirror, The Physics Teacher, vol.24, issue.8, pp.472-480, 1986.
DOI : 10.1119/1.2342096

. F. Goldberg and L. C. Mcdermott, An investigation of student understanding of the real image formed by a converging lens or concave mirror, American Journal of Physics, vol.55, issue.2, pp.108-119, 1987.
DOI : 10.1119/1.15254

. C. Goodwin and J. Heritage, Conversation Analysis, Annual Review of Anthropology, vol.19, issue.1, pp.283-307, 1990.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.001435

E. Guesne, Light Chrldren's Ideas in Science, pp.10-32, 1985.

. N. Hanson, Purrems of Discowry, 1958.

I. Hawkins and R. D. Pea, Tools for bridging the cultures of everyday and scientific thinking, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, vol.7, issue.4, pp.291-307, 1987.
DOI : 10.1002/tea.3660240404

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190549

J. Heritage, Garfinkel and Erhnomerhodology, 1984.

P. W. Hewson, A Conceptual Change Approach to Learning Science, European Journal of Science Education, vol.2, issue.4, pp.383-396, 1981.
DOI : 10.1080/0140528810304004

P. W. Hewson and M. G. Hewson, The role of conceptual conflict in conceptual change and the design of science instruction, Instructional Science, vol.3, issue.2, pp.1-13, 1984.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00051837

S. Jul, Dynagrams: The Software, Institute for Research on Learning, 1991.

W. Jung, Conceptual frameworks in elementary optic^, Proceedings of the Inremotional Workhop on Problems Concerning Srudenrs' Represenrarions of Physics and Chemisrry Knowledge, 1981.

J. L. Larkm and H. A. Simon, Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words, Cognitive Science, vol.1, issue.1, pp.65-100, 1987.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1551-6708.1987.tb00863.x

. I. Lave and E. Wenger, Siruared Learning: Le@imare Peripheral Parricipation, 1991.

J. L. Lemke, Talking Science: Language, Learning and Values, 1990.

A. I. Miller, Imagery in Scientific Thought, 1986.

R. D. Pea, Augmenting the Discourse of Learning with Computer-Based Learning Environments, Computer-Based Leaming Environments and Pmblem-Solving (NATO Series, subseries F: Computer and System Sciences), pp.313-343, 1992.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-77228-3_15

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190570

R. D. Pea, Learning scientific concepts through material and social activities: Conversational analysis meets conceptual change, Educational Psychologist, vol.7, issue.2, pp.265-277, 1993.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.an.19.100190.001435

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190572

R. D. Pea, Seeing What We Build Together: Distributed Multimedia Learning Environments for Transformative Communications, Journal of the Learning Sciences, vol.28, issue.3, pp.283-298, 1994.
DOI : 10.1109/38.126882

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190574

R. D. Pea, M. Sipusic, A. , and S. , Seeing the light on optics: Classroom-based research and development of a learning environment for conceptual change, Dwelopmenr and Learning Environmenrs: Swenrh Annual Workshop on Human Development, 1995.

G. J. Posner, K. A. Strike, P. W. Hewson, and W. A. Gertzog, Accommodation of a scientific conception: Toward a theory of conceptual change, Science Education, vol.1, issue.2, p.211, 1982.
DOI : 10.1002/sce.3730660207

E. A. Schegloff, Conversation analysis and socially shared cognition., Socially Shared Cognirion, pp.150-171, 1991.
DOI : 10.1037/10096-007

E. A. Schegloff and H. Sacks, Opening up clocings, Semiorica, vol.7, pp.289-327, 1973.

S. E. Toulmin, The phdosophy of Science: An Innoducrion, 1953.