H. J. Becker, School uses of microcompurers: Reporrs/rom a narional h v e, 1984.

H. J. Baker, Men and women as computer-using teachers, Sex Roles, vol.13, issue.3-4
DOI : 10.1007/BF00287906

. T. Bell, Speech delivered at Utah Technical College, 1984.

C. Bereiter, Writing Testing, reaching, an4learning, National Institute of Education, 1979.

T. A. Dwyer, Heuristic strategies for using computers toenrich edpcation, Inrernorional Jownol of Mon-Mochine Studies, vol.6, 1974.

T. A. Dwyer, Soloworks: Computer-Based Laboratories for High School Mathematics, School Science and Mathematics, vol.75, issue.1, 1975.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1949-8594.1975.tb09019.x

S. T. Eastman, Videorex in middleschool: Accommodoring computers m d printours in leorning informotion processing skills. Papcr presented at, the annual conference of the International Communication Associatiorr, 1984.

S. T. Eastman and D. E. Agostino, Commonding the compurer:Studcnts' uses ond understondings of videotex rechnology. Paper presented at the annual meting of the Speech Communication Association, 1984.

S. T. Eastman and K. A. Krcndl, Compurers andgcndcr: Di//crentialeflecrs of electronic scorch on srudents' ochiwemenr ond attitudes, Papcr presented at the Communication, Language, and Gender Conference, 1984.

J. Ecclu, Sex differences in mathematics participation, Women in science, 1983.

E. J. Parsoru, . T. Adler, and J. Meece, Sexdifferences in achievement: Atest of alternate theories Computers arc fun, but can they teach?, Journal of Personality & SocM Psychology Educational Testing Service, vol.46, issue.254, p.2643, 1979.

J. Edwards, . S. Norton, . S. Taylor, . M. Weiss, and R. Dusscldorp, How effective is CAI? A review of the research, Educorionol Lcodership, vol.33, pp.147-153, 1975.

S. W. Ehly and S. C. Larsen, Pccr ruroring for individuolizedinstrction, 1980.

. S. Elkin, Towards a contextual theory of innovation, Policy Sciences, vol.2, issue.4, pp.367-387, 1983.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00146008

J. A. Emrick, S. M. Peterson, and R. Aganvala-rogers, Evaluotion ofthe Norional D~;r/usion Nctworh (2 vols, 1977.

J. Ettema and F. G. Kline, Deficits,differcnces and ceilings: Contingent conditions for understanding the knowledge gap, Communicotion Rescarch, vol.4, pp.179-202, 1977.

C. Evans, The micromillenium, 1981.

P. A. Fedcrico, Individual differences in cognitive characteristics and computermanaged mastery learning, Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, vol.9, issue.1, pp.10-18, 1982.

J. Fcldhusen and M. Szabo, The advent of the educational hean transplant, computer-assisted instruction: A brief review of research, Conremporory Education, vol.40, pp.265-274, 1969.

R. Fcldman, L. Dcvin-sheehan, and V. Men, Children tutoring children: A critical rcview of research Children 0s reachers: Theory and reseorch on ruroring, 1976.

S. S. Fcldman, Children's understanding of negation as a logical operator, Generic Psychology, vol.85, p.349, 1972.

E. Fennema, Sex-related differences in mathematics achievement: Where and why Women ondrhe mothemaricalmystique, 1980.

E. Fenncma and J. Sherman, Sex-related differences in mathematics achievement and related factors: A further study, Journoljor Research in Marhematics Educorion, vol.9, pp.189-203, 1978.

M. Fctler, W. Fcuncig, P. Horwitz, and R. Nickenon, Cornpurer lirerocy in Calrornio schooh Sacramento: California , Department of Education, 1981.

W. Fcurzcig, S. Papert, M. Bloom, R. Grant, and C. Solomon, Rogromming languages as o fromework for reaching morhemotiu, 1969.

M. Fishbein and I. Azjcn, Belief, orrirude, fnrenrion, ond behavior, 1975.

. S. Fisher, Who'sploying rhesegomes onywoy? Berkeley: University of California Flavell Cognirive dcwlopmmr, J, 1983.

J. D. Fletcher, Stanford project on CAI for hearing impaired students, Journolof Compurer h c d Insrrucrion, pp.1-12, 1976.

J. D. Fletcher and . R. Atkinson, An evaluation of the Stanford CAI progam in initial reading (grades K through 3), Journolof Educotionol Psychology, vol.63, p.59742, 1972.

D. Forman, Search of the literature, Run: Compurer education, 1983.

I. Fox, Theproblem of women in mothemoriu, 1980.

E. S. Frcdin and K. A. Krendl, Medio fromes: Theirroks in informotionprocessing omong eighth groders using on eleclronic mcyclopedio, 1984.

M. Fullan and A. Pornfret, Rescarch on curriculum and instruction implemcntation, Review of Educorionol Rescorch, vol.47, pp.355-397, 1977.

. R. Gagnc, The conditions of learning, 1970.

E. Galanter, Kldc and computers, 1983.

G. Gallup, rite Gallup Yourh Survey, 1983.

G. Gerbner, L. Gross, N. Signorielli, M. Morgan, and . M. Jackson-beeck, Yio- IenceprojZe no. 10: nen& in network relevision dromo ond viewer conceptions of sochl reoliry, 1979.

S. Y. Gibbon, E. L. Palmer, and B. M. Fowles, Scsome Strect, The Ekcrric Company, and reading, Towor& a literoresociery @p, pp.215-256, 1975.

E. M. Glaser, H. H. Abclson, and K. Gamson, Purring knowledge ro we, 1983.

A. Goldberg and P. Suppes, A computer-assisted instruction progam for exercises in finding axioms, Educolionol Studies in Mothemotiu, vol.4, 1972.

'. E. Goldenberg, . S. Russell, and . C. Carter, Computers, educorion, ond special nee&, 1984.

S. E. Goldin and B. Hayes-roth, Individuold~~erencesinpIonningprocessrs(Notc N-1488-ONR), 1980.

. R. Goldman and R. Larose, Assessmmr of oudience feedbock systems for reseorch ondprogrommlng, 1981.

I. Goldstein, The computer us couch: An orhlericporadigm for inrellecruoleducorion (LOGO Memo 37), 1976.

. I. Goldstein and S. Papert, Artificial Intelligence, Language, and the Study of Knowledge*,???, Cognitive Science, vol.1, issue.10, pp.84-123, 1977.
DOI : 10.1207/s15516709cog0101_5

. M. Gnenkrger, Compurers andthe worldof rhe future. (Proceedings of the MIT symposium), 1962.

P. Greenfield, Mind ond media: The effects of relevision, video nomes, a -~OmpUterS, 1984.

J. Grccno, Rescarch on cognition and behaviorrelevant to education in mathcmati a , scicncc, and tcchnology, National Science Board Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology, Educating Americans for the 2lsr century: Source materbfs, 1983.

P. A. Griswold, Longitudinalpatterns of student attitudes in a computer-assisted instruction curriculum, 1981.

N. Gross, Theoretical and policy implications of case study-findings about federal efforts to improve public schools. Anna& of the American Academy of Politicaland Sochl Scuncc, pp.434-441, 1977.

D. R. Grossnickle and B. A. Laird, Planning for the Microcomputer: Innovation Insurance May Help, NASSP Bulletin, vol.66, issue.455, pp.60-63, 1982.
DOI : 10.1177/019263658206645510

. R. Grow and R. Kahn, Surveys by telephone, 1979.

G. D. Hacrtel, H. J. Walberg, L. Junker, and E. T. Pascarella, Early adolescent sex differences in science learning: Evidence from the National Assessment of Educational Progress, American Edrrcational Research Journal, vol.9, pp.329-341, 1981.

A. Hald, March). l3emakingofageniusgmeration. Papcr prcscnted at the Ninth Annual Math/Scicnce Conference, 1981.

. P. Hamilton and . M. Casscrly, Survey andanalysisof technology in the great cirfcr, Council of the Great City Schools, 1983.

M. J. Hannafm and L. Schaffcr, The e~ectsofsystematically variedinteractivity on Irorning from interactive video. Papcr prcscnted at the annual meeting of thc Amcrican Educational Research Association, 1984.

D. N. Hanscn, Computer-assisted instruction, Review of Educational Research, pp.36-588403, 1966.

S. S. Hartlcy, Mcta-analysis of the effects of individually paced instruction in mathematics. Dicscrtation Abstracts International, p.4003, 1978.

T. Hawelbring and C. Crossland, Application of Microcomputer Technology to Spelling Assessment of Learning Disabled Students, Learning Disability Quarterly, vol.8, issue.1, pp.80-82, 1982.
DOI : 10.2307/1510620

L. Hatfield, Computer-assisted problem solving in school mathcmatics, Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, vol.8, issue.32, pp.99-100, 1972.

. J. Hawkins, Lrarning LOGO together: l3c socialcontext. Paper presented at the annual mcctimg of the, 1983.

J. Hawkins, Computers andgirk Rethinking the issues, 1984.

J. Hawkins, The interpretation of LOGO in practice (Technical Rcport) New York: Bank Stnct Collcgc of Education, 1984.

J. Hawkins, K. Sheingold, M. Gearhart, and C. Bcrgcr, Microcomputcn in schook Impact on thc social life in elementary classrooms, Journal of Applied Dcvclopmenrol Psychology, vol.3, pp.361-373, 1982.

B. Hayes-roth, Estimation of time requirements duringplanning: l%e inreroct i o ~ , between motivation and cognition (Note N-1581-ONR), 1980.

B. Hayes-roth and F. Hayes-roth, A Cognitive Model of Planning*, Cognitive Science, vol.3, issue.4, pp.275-278, 1979.
DOI : 10.1207/s15516709cog0304_1

F. M. Hcchingcr, About education: Computer software found weak, p.4, 1982.

J. I. Hcller and J. G. Greeno, Information processing analyses of mathematical problem solving, Testing. teaching, and learning, 1979.

. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education

H. Hcrrog, Motivations and gratifications of daily serial listeners, 1944.

R. D. Hcss and . I. Miura, Genderandsocioeconomicd~ferencesin enrollment in computer campsondclasses, 1983.

. R. Hcss and I. T. Miura, Gender differences in enrollment in computcr camps and classes: The extracurricular acquisition of computcr training, Sex Roles: A Journal of Research

. Hcwlett-pqckard, S. R. Hiltz, and M. Turoff, Hewlett-Packard Series 80 software catalog The network nation: Human commwicalion via computer, 1978.

H. T. Himmelweit, . A. Oppenhcim, and P. Vince, Television and the child, 1958.

J. L. Hoffman and K. Waters, Somc cffccts of student personality on succxss with computer-assisted instruction, Educational Technology, pp.20-21, 1982.

J. Hoopcr, living with your teenager: Understanding changes in thinking, 1979.

J. Howc, Computers: A researcher's view. SpecialEducation: Forward nen& 7, pp.93-94, 1980.

M. J. Howe, Lrarning from clevisi ion: Psychological and educational research, 1983.

M. J. Howe, T. Oshca, and J. Plane, Teaching mathemarics through LOGO programming (Research Papcr 1 15), 1979.

. H. Hungate and J. I. Hcllcr, Reschool children and microcomputers, Paper prescnted at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1984.

B. Hunter, My students urc computers: Learning activities for computer literacy, 1983.

A. C. Huston and . J. Wright, Childrenkprocessing of tclcvision:?hc informative functions of formal features Ws.), Children's understanding of television: Research on arlention and comprehemion, pp.35-68, 1983.

H. Hyman and P. Sheatsky, Some Reasons Why Information Campaigns Fail, Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.11, issue.3, pp.412-423, 1947.
DOI : 10.1093/poq/11.3.412

D. Jamison, P. Suppcs, and S. &wells, THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ALTERNATIVE INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA: A SURVEY*, ETS Research Bulletin Series, vol.62, issue.2, p.161, 1974.
DOI : 10.1002/j.2333-8504.1973.tb00843.x

R. Jcssor and S. L. Jcssor, Problem behavior andpsychosocialdevelopmmt: A longitudinal study of youth, 1977.

K. J. Johanscn and R. D. &tcnnyson, Effect of adaptive advisement on perception in learner-controlled, computer-based instruction using a rule-learning task, Educational Communication and Technology Joumal, issue.4, pp.31-226236, 1983.

J. Johnston and J. S. Ettcma, Positive images:Brcakingsrercotypes with children's television, 1982.

J. Johnston, R. Lukcr, and J. Mcrgc-?-dollcr, Micros in the middle schook A snapshot in 1984, 1984.

L. M. Joiner, G. J. Vensel, J. D. Ross, and B. J. Silverstein, Microcomputers in education, 1982.

B. Joyce, Organizational horncostask and innovation: Tightening the loose COUplings, Education and Urban Society, vol.15, p.4269, 1982.

J. H. Kane, Computers for composing, Chameleonjn the classroom: Developing rohs for computers. Symposium presented at,the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1983.

E. Katz, On conceptualizing media effects Communications studies: Decades of dissent, 1980.

N. Katzman, The Impact of Communication Technology: Promises and Prospects, Journal of Communication, vol.172, issue.4, pp.47-58, 1974.
DOI : 10.1037/h0043158

N. Katzman, August) The impact of communication technology: Some theoretical premises and their implications, 1974.

A. Kay, Microelectronics and the personal computcr, Scienrijic American, vol.237, issue.230, pp.232-244, 1977.

A. Kay, Computer Software, Scientific American, vol.251, issue.3, pp.52-59, 1984.
DOI : 10.1038/scientificamerican0984-52

. S. Kicslcr, L. Sproull, and J. S. Ecclcs, Poolhalls, chips, and war games: Women in the culture of computing, Psychology of Women Quarterly

K. A. Krendl and E. S. Frcdin, Biases of communicarion systemcAn approach to studying new communicarion technologies, 1984.

T. Kuhn, The strucrure of scientijcrevolutions, 1970.

C. C. Kulik, J. A. Kulik, and R. L. Bangen-drowns, Wecrs of computer-bused education on clemcnrary schoolpupilr, Paper prescntcd at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1984.

. J. Kulik, Evaluating the effects of teaching with computers, Microcompurers in early education, 1984.

J. A. Kuiik, R. L. Bangen, and G. W. Williams, Effects ofcomputer-based teaching on secondary school students, Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.75, pp.19-26, 1983.

8. Kurtz, Investigating the relationship between the develooment of abstract -. -. -----reasoning and performancc in an introductory programming c l i s, ACM SIGCSE Bullerin, pp.12-13, 1980.

J. H. Larkin, ~nriching formal knowledge: A model for learning to solve textbook physics problems, Cognitive skills and their acquisition, pp.311-314, 1982.

J. H. Larkin, J. Mcdcrmott, D. P. Simon, and H. A. Simon, Expert and Novice Performance in Solving Physics Problems, Science, vol.208, issue.4450, pp.1335-1342, 1980.
DOI : 10.1126/science.208.4450.1335

H. D. Lsswell, The structure and function ofcommunications n e communicarion of ideas, 1948.

A. Lathrop and . B. Goodson, Courscwarc in rhe clarsroom, 1983.

A. I. Law, Student achievement in Calijornia schook 1982-83 annual report. Sacramento: California Assessment Program, 1983.

J. Lawton and V. T. Gcrschncr, A review of the literature o n attitudes towards computers and computerized instruction, Journal of Research and Development in Educarion, vol.16, issue.1, pp.50-55, 1982.

P. Latarsfcld and R. Mcrton, Mass communication, popular taste, and organized social action The communication of ideas, 1948.

A. H. Leighton, Human relations in a changing world, 1949.

. M. Leppcr, Microcomputers in education: Motivarionaland social issues, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, 1983.

M. Leppcr, Microcomputers in education: Motivational and social issues, American Psychologist, pp.1-18, 1985.

M. Lepper and T. W. Malonc, Intrinsic motivation and instructional effectiveness in computer-based education, Aptitude, learning, and instruction III: Conarive and affecriveprocess onalyscs. Hillsdale. NJ: Erlbaum

A. M. Lcsgold and F. Rief, Compurers in educariorr Realizing the potenrial, 1983.

G. S. Lesser, Children and television: Lessons from Sesame Street, 1974.

H. M. Levin, Costs and cost-eflectivctuss of computer-atsicred instruction (Report No. 84-A21), 1984.

. H. Levin, G. V. Glass, and G. R. Meistcr, Cost-effectiveness o f f o u r ~ d u c a t i o ~ l interventions, 1984.

. J. Levin and M. J. Boruta, Writing with computers in classrooms: 'You gct EXACTLY the right amount of space!" Theory into Pracricc, pp.291-295, 1983.

J. A. Levin, M. Boruta, and M. Vasconellos, Microcomputer-based cnvironmenu for writing: A Writer's Assistant, Clussroom computers and cognitive science, pp.219-232, 1983.

. J. Levin and Y. Kareev, Personal computers and education: n c challenge to schoolr, for Human Information Processing, 1980.

. J. Levin, . M. Riel, R. D. Rowc, and M. J. Boruta, (inpress) Muktukmetts Jacuzzi: Computer networks and elementary school writers The acquisition of written language: Revision and response

D. Lieberman, Children and computers: Patterns of use andorimrations toward reading. Paper prcscnted at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, 1984.

D. Lieberman, Children and videogames: Dtflerences between home computer game and arcadegameplayers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Intcrnational Communication Association, 1984.

M. C. Linn, Fostering equitable consequences from computer learning environments, Sex Roles, vol.20, issue.1, 1984.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00287913

M. C. Linn, Fostering equitable consequences from computcr learning cnvironments, Sex Roles
DOI : 10.1007/bf00287913

. M. Linn and J. Dalbey, Cognitive consequences ofprogramming instruction. Role of ability and access, 1984.

M. C. Linn and . Fisher, ntc gap between promise and reality in computer educarion: Plonning a response. Papcr prescntcd at Making Our Schools More Effective: A Conference for California Educators, 1983.

. M. Linn, C. Fisher, E. Mandinach, J. Dalbey, and . L. Bcckum, ACCCEL Proposal: Demands and cognitive consequences of computer fearning. (Contract No. 400-83-0017), 1982.

K. B. Mckcithcn, J. Rcitman, H. Rcuter, and S. Hirtlc, Knowledge organization and skill differences in computer programmers, Cognitive Psychology, vol.13, pp.307-325, 1981.

H. Mcndclsohn, Some reasons why information campaigns can succeed, Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.37, pp.50-61, 1973.

Y. Menis, . M. Snyder, and E. Ben-kohav, Improving achievement by means of the computer. Educational Technology. Microcomputer directory: Applications in educarioml settings, 1980.

K. W. Mielke and M. Chcn, Formativercscarchfor3-2-1 CONTACT Learning from relevision, pp.1-55, 1983.

M. Miles, Innovarion in cducorion, 1964.

S. Milncr, The effects of computerprogramming onperformance in mathematics, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Amcrican Educational Research Association, 1973.

. M. Minsky, Form and content in computer science, Communications of the ACM, vol.17, issue.2, pp.197-215, 1970.
DOI : 10.1145/1283920.1283924

. E. Mitchell, Home video games: Children andparents learn roplay andplay to learn, Papcr presented at the annual meeting of the Amcrican Educational Rcscarch Association, 1984.

. I. Miura, Home computer ownership: Does it a, 1984.

I. Miura and R. D. Hess, Sex drljerences in computer access, inleresr, and usage, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Amcrican Psychological Association, 1983.

A. R. Molnar, Intelligent Videodisc and the Learning Society, Journal of Educational Technology Systems, vol.3, issue.8, pp.31-40, 1980.

P. R. Mongc, R. V. Faracc, E. M. Eisenberg, K. I. Miller, and L. L. White, The process of studying process in organizational communication, Journalof Communication, vol.34, issue.1, p.2243, 1984.

A. A. Mullcr and M. Pcrlmuttcr, Preschoolchildren ?problem-soh.inginteractions at computers andjigsowpuzzles, 1984.

R. T. Murphy and L. R. Appel, Evaluation of the Pluto IY computer-baed education system in the communiry college, 1977.

R. T. Murphy and L. R. Appel, Evaluation of Writing to Read, 1984.

J. Murray, Television and youth: 25 years of research and convoversy, BOYS Town, 1981.

M. Nelson and S. D. Sicbcr, Innovations in Urban Secondary Schools, The School Review, vol.84, issue.2, pp.13-23, 1976.
DOI : 10.1086/443259

A. Newcll and H. A. Simon, Human problem sovling, 1972.

R. S. Nickerson, Computer programming as avchiclc for tcachingthinkingskills. ninking: The Journal of Philosophy for Children, p.4248, 1982.

O. Bryan, K. Bocrsma, and F. , Eye movements, perceptual activity, and conservation development, Journal of &perimental Child P~ychology, vol.12, pp.157-169, 1971.

C. And and . A. Octtinger, Run, computer, run, 1969.

O. Ncil and R. F. , Compurcr-bared insrruction: A store of !be art assessment, 1981.

W. J. Ong, Orality and lircracy: The tcchnologizing of the word, 1982.

T. H-e-q, Sel/-improving teaching sysremc An applicorion of arrijiciul inrelligencc to compurer-arsirrcd instruction, 1979.

T. Oshea and . J. Self, Lcarning and teaching wirh computers, pp.hntice-Hall, 1983.

W. J. Paisley, Computerizing Information: Lessons of a Videotext Trial, Journal of Communication, vol.32, issue.2, pp.153-154, 1983.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1983.tb02381.x

W. J. Paisley, W. J. Paisley, and M. L. Butler, Rirhm of the future: Learning and working in the oge of olgorirhmc. Paper presented at the Lake Arrowhead Conference on the Information Economy of California Compurer arsisrance in informorion work: Reporr ro the Narional Science Foundarion, 1977.

W. Paisley and . M. Chen, The Second Electronic Revolution: The Computer and Children, Communicorion yearbook 8, 1984.
DOI : 10.1080/23808985.1984.11678573

P. Palmgreen, Uses and Gratifications: A Theoretical Perspective, Annals of the International Communication Association, vol.8, issue.1, pp.20-55, 1984.
DOI : 10.1080/23808985.1984.11678570

. S. Papert, Teaching children to be marhematicions vs. teaching about mathemarics (LOGO Memo 4), 1971.

S. Papert, Teaching children thinking. Programmed Learning and Educational Tcchnology, pp.245-270, 1972.
DOI : 10.1080/1355800720090503

URL : http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/5835#files-area

S. Papert, Teaching Children to be Mathematicians Versus Teaching About Mathematics, International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, vol.3, issue.3, pp.249-262, 1972.
DOI : 10.1080/0020739700030306

. S. Papert, Computers and learning ?7~e compurer age: A twenry year view, 1979.

S. Papert, Mindstorm: Children, computers, and powerful ideas, 1980.

S. Papeit, D. Watt, . A. Disessa, and S. Weir, Finalreporr of the Brookline LOGO Projecrpart II: Projecr summary and dara analysis (LOGO Memo 53), 1979.

R. D. Pea, What is planningdcvclopmcnt the development of? The development of planfulbchavi~r in children, New directions in child development, 1982.

. R. Pea, LOGOprogramming andproblem-solving, Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1983.

R. D. Pea, Prospectsand challenges for usingmicrocornputers in school, Tcchnical Report, issue.7, 1984.

R. Pea and D. , Symbol systems and thinkingskills: LOGO incontext, Preproceedings of rhc 1984 National LOGO Conference. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1984.

R. D. Pea and J. Hawkins, Children's planning processes in a chore-scheduling task Blueprinrs for , thinking: The role of planning in cognitive development, 1984.

R. D. Pea and . D. Kurland, On the cognitiveprercquliresof learning cornpuler programming, 1983.

R. D. Pea and D. M. Kurland, LOGOprogramming and the development of planning skills, 1984.

. R. Pea and D. M. Kurland, On the cognitive effects of learning computer programming, New Ideas in Psychology, vol.2, issue.2, pp.137-168, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0732-118X(84)90018-7

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00190532

. D. Pearl, L. Bouthelit, and . J. &lazar, Television ondbehavior: Ten yearsofscienrijic progressandimplicotio~j~r thc80~(2vols.). Washington, DC: Government Printing Officc, 1982.

N. Pcnnington, Cognitive components of experrle in computcrprogramming: A review of rhc literarure Ann Arbor, 1982.

. R. Perlman, Using computer rcchnology to provide o creative learning environment for preschool children (LOGO Memo 24), 1976.

T. J. Peters, Parterm of winning ondlosing: Effecrs on approach andovoidance by friends and enemies, 1977.

D. Peterson, Intelligent schoolhouse, 1984.

G. Phillips, I B M PC public domain sofrware (Vol. I), 1984.

J. Piaget, nte origins of intelligence in childrcn, 1952.

A. M. Picstrup, Preschool childrcn use an Apple IImicrocomputcr to rest reading skillsprograms, 1981.

A. M. Piestrup, Young children w e computer graphics, Company, 1982.

S. Pogrow, Educarion in the computer age, 1983.

A. Pollack, Finding home computer uses, p.3, 1983.

G. Polya, How to solve it Garden City, 1957.

I. Pool and S. De, What Ferment?: A Challenge for Empirical Research, Journal of Communication, vol.33, issue.3, pp.258-261, 1983.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-2466.1983.tb02426.x

J. H. Poore and J. W. Hamblen, Improvcmcnt of basic mathematical skills with PLATO: An experiment, AEDS Journal, 1983.

J. H. Poorc and J. E. Qualls, Fall). The educational effectiveness and economics of delivery of the PLATO basic skills mathematics lessons: A field study, 1981.

. S. Pulos and . S. Fisher, Socio-economic dmrences in adolescents' artirudes towards computers Implementing compurer technology in classroom settings: An anecdotal report of long-term use, Paper presented at the NIE Conferencc on Implementing Computer Technology in Classroom Setting, 1981.

S. Rafaeli, V t h e computer is the medium, what Lc the message? (I): Explicaring intcroctivity, 1984.

M. Ragosta, Computer-assisted instruction and compensatory education: A longitudinal analysis. Machine-Mediated Lrorning. I(]), 1983.

T. C. Reeves and R. M. Lent, Levels of evaluation for computer-basid insiruction, 1984.

L. B. Rcsnick, Mathematics and Science Learning: A New Conception, Science, vol.220, issue.4596, pp.477-478, 1984.
DOI : 10.1126/science.220.4596.477

G. Revelle, M. Honey, E. Amscl, L. Schauble, and G. Levine, Sex d~gerences in the use of computers, Paper prcsented a t t h c annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1984.

J. A. Riccobono, Availability, we, and support of irrrtructional media. 1982-83, 1984.

M. L. Rice, A. C. Huston, and J. C. Wright, The forms of television: Effects on children's attention, comprehension, and social behavior. Televhion and behavior: Ten years of scientijic progress and implications for the eighties: Yol. 2, National Institute of Mental Health, pp.24-38, 1982.

R. E. Rice and . C. B0rgman, The use of computer-monitored data in information science and communication research, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, vol.11, issue.4, pp.247-256, 1983.
DOI : 10.1002/asi.4630340404

R. E. Rice and W. Richards, An o v c ~ e w of network analysis mcthods, 1984.

R. , A. , R. E. Rogers, and E. M. , Reinvention in the innovation process, Knowledge, vol.1, issue.4, pp.499-514, 1980.

R. E. Rice and E. M. Rogers, New mcthods and data for the study of new media, l71e new media: Communication, research, and technology, pp.81-100, 1984.

E. A. Rich, Users are individuals: individualizing user models, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, vol.18, issue.3, pp.199-214, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/S0020-7373(83)80007-8

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

M. M. Riel, (in. press). The Computcr Chronicles newswire: A functional learning environment for acquiring literacy skills, Journal of Educational Computing
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01025181

M. M. Riel, J. A. Levin, and B. Miller-souviney, Dynamicsupport andeducatfonal sojlwaredcvclopment, Papcr presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1984.

T. Riordan, How to select software you can trust. Classroom Computer News, pp.56-61, 1983.

L. G. Robens, The future of electronic learning. Papcr prescnted at Teachers College, 1982.

W. Robinctt, Rocky's Boots [Computcr program], 1980.

F. J. Roetnisberger and W. J. Dickson, Management andthe worker, 1939.

E. M. Rogers, The d~;r/uion of innovations, 1983.

E. M. Rogers and R. Adhikarya, Diffusion of innovations: An u p t o d a t e commcntary, Communication yearbook 3, 1979.

E. M. Rogcrs, H. M. Daley, and T. D. Wu, The d~;r/iion of home computers, 1982.

E. M. Rogers and D. L. Kincaid, Communication nctworks: Toward a new paradigm for research, 1981.

E. M. Rogers and J. Marcus, Advances in diffusion theory Knowledge utilization systems in education: Dissemination, technical assbrance, networking, pp.251-258, 1983.

E. M. Rogcrs, J. Mcmanus, J. D. Peters, and . Kim, Microcomputers in the schoolr: A case ojdecentralized d~rusion, J, vol.4, 1984.

E. M. Rogcn and S. Rafacli, Computers and communication Behavior and information, 1984.

B. Rogoff and W. P. Gardner, Devclopingcognitive skills in social interaction Everyday cognition: Its development in social context. Cambridgc, 1983.

L. Ross, The "intuitive scientist" formulation and its developmental implications, 1981.

P. Ross and J. Howe, Teaching mathematics through programming: Ten years, Computers in education Amsterdam, 1981.

. E. Rubinstein, G. Comstock, and . Murray, Television andsocial behavior, 1972.

B. Ryan and . N. Gross, The diffusion of hybrid x e d corn in two Iowacommuni- . tics, Rural Sociology, vol.8, pp.15-24, 1943.

G. Salomon, Internalization of filmic schematic operations in interaction with learners' aptitudes., Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.66, issue.4, pp.499-51, 1974.
DOI : 10.1037/h0036753

G. Salomon, Interacrion of media, cognition, and learning, 1979.

0. N. Saracho, The Effects of a Computer-assisted Instruction Program on Basic Skills Achievement and Attitudes Toward Instruction of Spanish-speaking Migrant Children, American Educational Research Journal, vol.19, issue.2, pp.201-219, 1982.
DOI : 10.3102/00028312019002201

W. Schramm, J. Lyle, and E. B. Parker, Television in the lives of our children, 1961.

J. G. Schubert, Females and microcomputer use in school: Some insights inro traditionalpatterns, Papcr presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, 1984.

S. Scribncr and M. Cole, ~ e p s y c h o l o g y of literacy, 1981.

R. W. Scrivens, Waterford township school district INDICOMproject, Evaluation Monograph, issue.1, 1970.

R. Seidman, The effects of learning a computerprogramming language on the logical reasoning of school children, Papcr presented at the annual meeting of the Amcrican Educational Research Association. Los Angels, 1981.

. G. Selnow, Playing videogarnu: The electronic friend, Journalof Communicution, vol.34, issue.2, 1984.

S. Shannon, Computcr access for Hispanic secondary students, 1983.

R. Shavclson, Teaching mathcmatiu and scunce: Patterns of microcomputer use, 1984.

K. Sheingold, Issues related to the implementation of computer technology in schook A cross-sectionalstudy. Paper presented at the National Institute of Education Conference on Issues Related to the Implementation of Computcr Technology in Schools, 1981.

K. Sheingold, J. H. Kane, and M. E. Endreweit, Microcomputer Use in Schools: Developing a Research Agenda, Harvard Educational Review, vol.53, issue.4, p.441432, 1983.
DOI : 10.17763/haer.53.4.q42t234826087673

E. A. Shils and M. Janowitz, Cohesion and Disintegration in the Wehrmacht in World War II, Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.12, issue.2, pp.280-296, 1948.
DOI : 10.1086/265951

S. B. Silvern, P. A. Williamson, and T. A. Countermine, Aggression in young children and video gameplay. Paper presented at the biennial mcetin'gbf the Society for Rcsearch in Child Development, 1983.

L. N. Simmons, Egects of educational technology: A review of the literature (Research Report No. IR76-800-71-14) Dallar: Dallas Independent School District, 1975.

B. F. Skinner, The behavior of organisms: An experimentahnalysis, 1938.

D. H. Sleeman, Intelligenr tutoring systems: A review, 1984.

D. H. Slceman and . Brown, Intelligent tutoring system, 1982.

. D. Smith and R. D. Has, Theeffectsof computer-assbtedhtruction on student sev-concept, locus of control, andlevelof aspiration, 1972.

E. Soloray, K. Ehrlich, J. Bonar, and J. Greenspan, What d o novices know about programming?, Directions in human-computer interaction Hillsdale, 1982.

E. Soloway, J. Lockhead, and J. Clement, Docs computer programming enhance problem solving ability? Some positive evidence on algebra word problems Computer literacy, 1982.

L. S. Sproull and K. R. Hofmcistcr, Implementation: A cognitive perspective, 1982.

J. Stanton, R. Wells, S. Rochowansky, and M. Mellin, Apple software, 1984.

J. Stanton, R. Wells, S. Rochowansky, and M. Mcllin, Atari software, 1984.

S. Stcffin, The educator and the software publisher: A critical relationship, Technologic~l Horizons in Education Journal, pp.63-64, 1982.

M. Stefik, D. Bobrow, S. Mittal, and L. Conway, Summer) Knowledge programming in LOOPS, 1983.

J. S. Stcin and M. C. Linn, Research designs for studies of acquisition of higher cognitive skillr from computer-assisted learning. Substudy B2: "Rocky's Boots, 1984.

J. S. Stcin and . M. Linn, Cognitive consequences of software design features: An investigation of "Rocky's Boots, Berkelcy, 1984.

E. R. Steinberg, Review of student control in computer-assisted instruction, Journal of Computer-&xed Instruction, vol.3, pp.84-90, 1977.

2. D. Steinberg and C. B. Cazdcn, Children as teachers-of peers and ourselves. Theory into Practice, pp.258-266, 1979.

S. Stouffer, E. Suchman, L. C. Dcvinncy, S. Star, R. M. Williams et al., The American soldier, 1949.

P. Suppcs, The uses of computers in education, Scientijic American, vol.215, pp.207-217, 1966.

P. Suppcs, Current trendc in computer-asskledi~~~ction, 1979.

P. Suppcs, M. Jcrman, and D. Brian, Computer-assisted instruction: Stanford's 196566 Arithmetic Program, Acadcmic. References, p.315, 1968.

P. Suppcs and M. Morningstar, Computer-assisted instruction at Stanford, 1966- 1968: Data, models, andevaluation ofthe Arithmetic Programs, 1972.

M. Swadcner, Personal computers and cross-aged instruction, first year report

S. S. Swinton, M. Amarcl, and . J. Morgan, Tlhe PLATOelernentary demonstration: Educational outcome evaluation (Final report to the National Science Foundation ), 1978.

F. M. Taber, Microcomputers in specialeducation, 1983.

F. Taylor, Scient~pc management, 1911.

R. D. Tcnnyson, Use of Adaptive Information for Advisement in Learning Concepts and Rules Using Computer-assisted Instruction, American Educational Research Journal, vol.18, issue.4, pp.425-438, 1981.
DOI : 10.3102/00028312018004425

R. D. Tennyson and . Park, Computer-based adaptivc instructional systems: A review of empirically based models, Machine-Mediated Learning, pp.129-153, 1984.

P. J. Tichenor, G. A. Donohue, and C. N. Olien, Mass Media Flow and Differential Growth in Knowledge, Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.34, issue.2, pp.158-170, 1970.
DOI : 10.1086/267786

S. Tickton, T o improve learning: An evaluation of instructional technology (Report of the Commission on Instructional Tcchnology), 1970.

T. S. Wcissbrod and C. , Anxiety and mathematics: An update, Harvard Educational Review, vol.50, pp.63-70, 1980.

L. G. Tornatzsky, Theprocess of technologicalinnovation: Reviewing the literature, National Science Foundation, 1983.

S. Touimin, The uses of argument, 1964.

D. Trowbridge and R. Durnin, Results from an investigation ofgroups working at the computer, 1984.

S. Turkle, The second s e p Computers andthe human spirit, 1984.

. E. Vockell and R. H. Rivers, Instructionalcomputingfor today's teachers, 1984.

. L. Wagner, Peer reaching: Hbtoricalperspecrives, 1982.

J. Wakesbcrg, Sampling methods for random digit dialing Journalof the American ~ t k i s t i c a l Association, pp.40-46, 1978.

D. F. Walker, Reflections on the educational potential and limitations of microcomputcn, Phi Delta Kappan, pp.103-107, 1983.

D. F. Walkcr, Computers in the schools (Education Brief), 1984.

D. F. Walker and R. D. Hcss, Inst~ctional sof~ware: Principles and perspectives for design and we, 1984.

E. Wartella and B. Reeves, Repetition, symmetry, and change: Filty years of inquiry into the influence of mass media on children, Public and behavior, 1984.

. B. Watkins, J. Cojuc, and . S. Mills, Children wrireabour tel~visionandreal lye: The relariomhip ofprime-lime televiewing and traditional achieGement measures to nancrive form and contenr. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Southwestern Society for Rcsearch in Human Dcvclopment, 1982.

M. W. Watkins and C. Webb, Computcr-assisted instruction with learning disabled studenu, Educational Computer, vol.1, pp.24-27, 1981.

K. Wcick, Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems, Administrative Science Q~~arrerly, vol.21, pp.1-19, 1976.

K. Wcick, Small wins: Redefining the scale of social problems, American Psychologirt . jwl), pp.40-49, 1984.

S. Weir, Using LOGO ro caralyze communicarion in an autistic child (Rcsearch Rcpon No. IS), 1976.

S. Weir, LOGO as an information prosthetic for the handicapped, 1981.

S. Wcir, LOGO and the exceptional child. Microcompuring, pp.78-84, 1981.

J. Weizenbaurn, Computer power and human reason, 1976.

R. Wells, S. Rochowansky, and M. Mcllin, IBMsof~ware, 1984.

W. Wilken and C. Blaschke, States need to rethinksoftware strategies, p.96, 1983.

A. C. Wilkinson, Classroom computers and cognirive science, 1983.

F. William, J. Coulombe, and L. Lievrouw, Children's attitudes toward small compuxn: A preliminary study, Educarional Communication and Technology Journal, vol.31, issue.1, pp.3-7, 1983.

F. Williams and V. Williams, Microcomputers in elemenrary education: Perspecrives on implementation, 1984.

F. Williams and V. Williams, Success wirh educarional software: A research report, 1984.

F. Williams and V. Williams, Success wirh educational sofrware, 1985.

R. K. Yin, Life Histories of Innovations: How New Practices Become Routinized, Public Administration Review, vol.41, issue.1, pp.21-28, 1981.
DOI : 10.2307/975720

R. K. Yin, Studying the implementation of public programs, Studying implemenrarion, p.3672, 1982.
DOI : 10.2172/5487716

R. K. Yin, Plan for conducting case srudies of microcomputer w e in special education. Unpublished manuscript, COSMOS Corporation, 1983.

R. K. Yin, Case srudy research: Design and method, 1984.

R. K. Yin, K. A. Heald, and M. Vogel, linkering with the system: Technolog;co/ innovatiom in slate and local services, 1977.

R. K. Yin and J. L. White, Microcompurer implemenrarion in schools, COSMOS Corporation. References 31, p.7, 1984.

G. Zaltman, R. Duncan, and J. Holbek, Innovarionsandorganizarions, 1973.

D. Zillman, Television viewing and arousal Television and behavior: Ten years of scienrijicprogress and implicarions for rhe eighties, pp.53-67, 1982.