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In situ recording of Mars soundscape

S. Maurice 1, * B. Chide 2, * N. Murdoch 3 R. Lorenz 4 D. Mimoun 3 R. C. Wiens 2, 5 A. Stott 3 X. Jacob 6 T. Bertrand 7 Franck Montmessin 8 N. Lanza 2 C. Alvarez-Llamas 9 S. Angel 10 M. Aung 11 J. Balaram 11 O. Beyssac 12 A. Cousin 1 G. Delory 13 O. Forni 1 T. Fouchet 7 O. Gasnault 1 H. Grip 11 M. Hecht 14 J. Hoffman 15 J. Laserna 9 Jérémie Lasue 1 J. Maki 11 J. Mcclean 14 P.-y. Meslin 1 S. Le Mouélic 16 A. Munguira 17 C. E. Newman 18 J. A. Rodríguez Manfredi 19 J. Moros 9 A. Ollila 2 P. Pilleri 1 S. Schröder 20 M. de La Torre Juárez 11 T. Tzanetos 11 K. M. Stack 11 K. Farley 11 K. Williford 11, 21 T. Acosta-Maeda 22 R. B. Anderson 23 D. M. Applin 24 G. Arana 25 M. Bassas-Portus 3 R. Beal 2 P. Beck 26 K. Benzerara 12 S. Bernard 12 P. Bernardi 7 T. Bosak 27 B. Bousquet 28 A. Brown 29 A. Cadu 3 P. Caïs 30 K. Castro 25 E. Clavé 28 S. Clegg 2 E. Cloutis 24 S. Connell 24 A. Debus 31 E. Dehouck 32 D. Delapp 2 C. Donny 31 A. Dorresoundiram 7 G. Dromart 32 B. Dubois 33 C. Fabre 34 A. Fau 1 W. Fischer 35 R. Francis 11 J. Frydenvang 36 T. Gabriel 23 E. Gibbons 37 I. Gontijo 11 J. R. Johnson 4 H. Kalucha 35 E. Kelly 22 Elise Wright Knutsen 8 Gaetan Lacombe 8 C. Legett 2 R. Leveille 37 E. Lewin 26 G. Lopez-Reyes 38 E. Lorigny 31 J. M. Madariaga 25 M. Madsen 39 S. Madsen 11 L. Mandon 7 N. Mangold 16 M. Mann 31 J.-A. Manrique 1, 38 J. Martinez-Frias 40 L. E. Mayhew 41 T. Mcconnochie 42 S. M. Mclennan 43 N. Melikechi 44 F. Meunier 31 G. Montagnac 32 V. Mousset 31 T. Nelson 2 R. Newell 2 y. Parot 1 C. Pilorget 45, 46 P. Pinet 1 G. Pont 31 F. Poulet 45 C. Quantin-Nataf 32 B. Quertier 30 W. Rapin 1 A. Reyes-Newell 2 S. Robinson 2 L. Rochas 31 C. Royer 7 F. Rull 38 V. Sautter 12 S. Sharma 22 V. Shridar 11 A. Sournac 3 M. Toplis 1 I. Torre-Fdez 25 N. Turenne 24 A. Udry 47 M. Veneranda 38 D. Venhaus 2 D. Vogt 20 P. Willis 11 
* Corresponding author
8 PLANETO - LATMOS
LATMOS - Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales
Abstract : Prior to the Perseverance rover landing, the acoustic environment of Mars was unknown. Models predicted that: (i) atmospheric turbulence changes at centimeter scales or smaller at the point where molecular viscosity converts kinetic energy into heat, (ii) the speed of sound varies at the surface with frequency and (iii) high frequency waves are strongly attenuated with distance in CO2. However, theoretical models were uncertain because of a lack of experimental data at low pressure, and the difficulty to characterize turbulence or attenuation in a closed environment. Here using Perseverance microphone recordings, we present the first characterization of Mars’ acoustic environment and pressure fluctuations in the audible range and beyond, from 20 Hz to 50 kHz. We find that atmospheric sounds extend measurements of pressure variations down to 1,000 times smaller scales than ever observed before, revealing a dissipative regime extending over 5 orders of magnitude in energy. Using point sources of sound (Ingenuity rotorcraft, laser-induced sparks), we highlight two distinct values for the speed of sound that are ~10 m/s apart below and above 240 Hz, a unique characteristic of low-pressure CO2-dominated atmosphere. We also provide the acoustic attenuation with distance above 2 kHz, allowing us to elucidate the large contribution of the CO2 vibrational relaxation in the audible range. These results establish a ground truth for modelling of acoustic processes, which is critical for studies in atmospheres like Mars and Venus ones.
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S. Maurice, B. Chide, N. Murdoch, R. Lorenz, D. Mimoun, et al.. In situ recording of Mars soundscape. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, 2022, (in press). ⟨10.1038/s41586-022-04679-0⟩. ⟨insu-03631328v1⟩

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